Stay tuned for this new Alternative Fuels blog series

For almost a century, gasoline and diesel have been the cornerstone of global transportation, powering everything from personal vehicles to the engines of industry and agriculture. Their historical importance cannot be overstated, serving as the means behind economic development and facilitating mobility on a truly massive scale. The extensive knowledge and infrastructure built around these traditional fuels reflect their long-standing dominance in the energy sector. However, this reliance didn’t come without significant challenges. More recent environmental concerns, such as air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, alongside the volatile nature of fossil fuel markets, have underscored the opportunity to leverage alternative fuels. 

As public policymakers and the general public look toward the future, there’s an apparent consensus around transitioning towards alternative and more sustainable energy sources. This transition, motivated by environmental considerations and advancements in alternative fuel technologies, represents a critical juncture in our energy use and transportation policy approach. While the path forward may be complex, the evolving landscape of vehicle fuels highlights a collective move towards reducing our carbon footprint and fostering a more sustainable and resilient energy economy.

As the global search for sustainable alternatives to gasoline and diesel proceeds, a diverse array of fuels emerges, each with unique benefits and infrastructure challenges. Biofuels, derived from organic materials, offer a renewable energy source that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels. However, their widespread adoption is hindered by the need for significant agricultural inputs and needed processing infrastructure. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), powered by electricity stored in batteries, stand out for their zero tailpipe emissions and high energy efficiency. Yet, their potential is limited by the current availability of charging stations and the need for faster charging solutions. At the same time, many electric grids in the U.S. are dominated by fossil fuel electricity generation technologies.

Fuel cell vehicles, utilizing hydrogen to produce electricity, offer the promise of fast refueling and long-range, akin to conventional vehicles, but are constrained by the sparse network of hydrogen fueling stations. Natural Gas, including Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), burns cleaner than petroleum-based fuels, reducing emissions of particulates and greenhouse gases. However, the distribution infrastructure for these gases requires expansion to become as accessible as traditional fuels. Dimethyl Ether (DME) presents an environmentally friendly diesel alternative with a lower emission profile, but like others, it faces the challenge of establishing a production and distribution network.

P-series fuels, synthetic fuels made from biomass, offer versatility and environmental benefits but are still in the early stages of market penetration & research, needing further infrastructure for production and distribution. There’s also an obligation on the government to issue more grants for studying P-series fuels to make them as efficient as their CO2-emitting counterparts. The infrastructure challenges across these alternatives highlight a common theme. While each fuel offers distinct advantages in reducing emissions and dependency on fossil fuels, the development of supportive infrastructure is critical. From expanding electric charging networks and hydrogen fueling stations to increasing the availability of biofuel processing facilities, each step towards infrastructure development is a step towards a more sustainable and diversified energy landscape.

The trajectory of vehicle fuels is being reshaped by breakthroughs in alternative fuel technology, notably in biofuel production, where recent advances in heterogeneous catalysts promise to slash production costs and enhance environmental sustainability. This leap forward, characterized by the development of cost-effective catalysts like heteropolyacid, zeolite, graphene, and metal oxides, signifies a promising trend towards more efficient, eco-friendly biofuels. Together with progress in battery and hydrogen technologies, these innovations underscore the balance between environmental stewardship and economic viability, pointing towards a future where sustainable fuels may become both preferable and financially competitive.

In this blog series, we will explore the potential and challenges behind several alternative fuels, including:

• Biodiesel (Production) (On the Roads)
• Electric Vehicles (Batteries) (Supporting Infrastructure)
• Methane: Compressed vs Liquified Natural Gas
• Fuel Cells/Hydrogen
• Hydrogen Combustion
• Ethanol
• Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel Production issues


The shift towards sustainable alternative vehicle fuels necessitates global collaboration and continued research support to navigate technological hurdles and harness the full potential of these advancements. This collective endeavor is key to transitioning these technologies from research labs to real-world applications, promising a diversified, sustainable, and economically viable energy landscape for transportation. By fostering innovation and supporting research, we cab pave the path to a cleaner, more sustainable future.


Written by Mustafa Haque, Public Policy Intern

The Alliance for Innovation and Infrastructure (Aii) is an independent, national research and educational organization. An innovative think tank, Aii explores the intersection of economics, law, and public policy in the areas of climate, damage prevention, energy, infrastructure, innovation, technology, and transportation.